Unboxing cryptography

 

Daniela Matos de Carvalho  @sericaia

Jan, 14th

Hello 👋

(source https://media.giphy.com/media/14kqI3Y4urS3rG/giphy.gif)

Why Cryptography

Crypto   |   graphy

"hidden"                               "to write"

|

What is Cryptography 

plaintext

ciphertext

"I want water"

"kudh123y43grfdsjh323jhrgs"

?

plaintext

ciphertext

"I want water"

"kudh123y43grfdsjh323jhrgs"

plaintext

"I want water"

encryption

decryption

What is Cryptography 

How: A bit of history

"attack!"

"exxego!"

(Image source https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/Gaius_Iulius_Caesar_%28Vatican_Museum%29.jpg/440px-Gaius_Iulius_Caesar_%28Vatican_Museum%29.jpg)

Marcus Antonius 

(Roman General)

?

(Image source https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/Gaius_Iulius_Caesar_%28Vatican_Museum%29.jpg/440px-Gaius_Iulius_Caesar_%28Vatican_Museum%29.jpg)

shift (a       e)

"attack!"

"exxego!"

Marcus Antonius 

(Roman General)

How: A bit of history

Common

mistakes

(naming)

Hashing

Encrypting

Encoding

Obfuscating

Signing

?

Obfuscating

(image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/daquellamanera/206181168)

Obfuscating

Example: code obfuscation

Encoding

(image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/wapster/4479756238)

Encoding

Example: URL

will be turned into

Encoding

Example: emoji

Encoding

Example: Image encoding

(image source: https://jakearchibald.com/2020/avif-has-landed/)

Hashing

(image source https://media.giphy.com/media/xT5LMO521BqYaz0TxS/giphy.gif)

Example: Subresource Integrity

<link
 rel="stylesheet"
 href="https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.3.1/css/bootstrap.min.css" 
 integrity="sha384-ggOyR0iXCbMQv3Xipma34MD+dH/1fQ784/j6cY/iJTQUOhcWr7x9JvoRxT2MZw1T"
 crossorigin="anonymous"
/>

 It works by allowing you to provide a cryptographic hash that a fetched resource must match. (MDN)

Hashing

Example: password hashing

Hashing

password

hash

pw2hbPj3

rrE89xF8

pw2hbPj3

...

azMYigjy46F7gAYm

CNoa6Cfe6KHd3L5B

azMYigjy46F7gAYm

Example: password hashing

Hashing

salt

password

hash

pw2hbPj3

rrE89xF8

pw2hbPj3

...

g7Kkosc5HEeTnmgq

eJNmGYYj8z7SaFm5

aFCSdgAR55YBfxm8

ar8o8R7k

65kpfRMQ

L3GJS9gg

hashing ~ "one way encryption"

Encrypting

(image source https://www.flickr.com/photos/152175890@N03/35958764831)

(gif source https://giphy.com/gifs/americangrit-john-cena-fox-tv-l1J3vV5lCmv8qx16M/links)

Encrypting

Confidentiality can be obtained using encryption to render the information unintelligible except by an authorized entity who uses an appropriate key to decrypt the encrypted information.  ​

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption

Symmetric Encryption

(same key)

plaintext

ciphertext

"I want water"

"kudh123y43grfdsjh323jhrgs"

plaintext

"I want water"

encryption

decryption

Symmetric Encryption

(same key)

ciphertext

encryption

decryption

👩

👨

plaintext

Asymmetric Encryption

(public & private key)

plaintext

ciphertext

"I want water"

"kudh123y43grfdsjh323jhrgs"

plaintext

"I want water"

encryption

decryption

public key

private key

👩

👨

Asymmetric Encryption

(public & private key)

John

private

public

public

private

Sara

👩

Asymmetric Encryption

(public & private key)

ciphertext

encryption

👩

Asymmetric Encryption

(public & private key)

John's

public

ciphertext

👩

👨

Asymmetric Encryption

(public & private key)

ciphertext
ciphertext

decryption

👩

👨

plaintext

Asymmetric Encryption

(public & private key)

John's

private

ciphertext

Signing

👩

signed message

signing

Sara's

private

Verifying a signature

signed message

verifying

Sara's

public

👨

It was

Sara!

Use

Cases

TLS

Password managers

Instant messaging apps

Email & Storage

SSH

PGP

Webauthn

Use

Cases

...

application layer

transport layer

TCP

HTTP

TLS

application layer

transport layer

TCP

HTTP

TLS

encryption layer

server

client

ClientHello

TLS handshake

ServerHello

server

client

ClientHello

TLS handshake

ServerHello

from asymmetric to

symmetric encryption

(image source https://victoria.dev/blog/what-is-tls-transport-layer-security-encryption-explained-in-plain-english/)

a note on integrity

with Message Authentication Code (MAC)

Encrypted Message

MAC

Headers

TLS

Password managers

Instant messaging apps

Email & Storage

SSH

PGP

Webauthn

Use

Cases

...

What do these use cases have in common?

(Some) "Basic" rules

What do these use cases have in common?

(gif source https://media.giphy.com/media/FVAvmLbptzZpC/giphy.gif)

Why are we not using the most recent crypto algorithms everywhere?

How to

THANKS 👋

Unboxing cryptography

 

Daniela Matos de Carvalho  @sericaia

Jan, 14th

Unboxing Cryptography

By Daniela Matos de Carvalho

Unboxing Cryptography

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