### Clayton Shonkwiler PRO

Mathematician and artist

/fsu24

this talk!

AMS Special Session on Geometry and Symmetry in Data Science

March 23, 2024

Florida State University

National Science Foundation (DMS–2107700)

**Definition.**

\(A \in \mathbb{C}^{d \times d}\) is *normal* if \(AA^\ast = A^\ast A\).

Equivalently,

\(0 = AA^\ast - A^\ast A = [A,A^\ast]\).

Define the *non-normal energy* \(\operatorname{E}:\mathbb{C}^{d \times d} \to \mathbb{R}\) by

\(\operatorname{E}(A) := \|[A,A^\ast]\|^2.\)

**Obvious Fact.**

The normal matrices are the global minima of \(\operatorname{E}\).

\(\operatorname{E}\) is not quasiconvex!

\(\operatorname{E}(A) = \|[A,A^\ast]\|^2\)

\(\nabla \operatorname{E}(A) = [A,[A,A^\ast]]\)

\(A\) is a critical point of \(\operatorname{E} \Leftrightarrow 0=[A,[A,A^\ast]]\).

**Lemma** [Jacobson, 1935]

If \(A\) and \(B\) are \(d \times d\) matrices over a field of characteristic 0 and \(A\) commutes with \([A,B]\), then \([A,B]\) is nilpotent.

**Theorem** [with Needham]

The only critical points of \(\operatorname{E}\) are the global minima; i.e., the normal matrices.

Let \(\mathcal{F}: \mathbb{C}^{d \times d} \times \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{C}^{d \times d}\) be negative gradient descent of \(\operatorname{E}\); i.e.,

\(\mathcal{F}(A_0,0) = A_0 \qquad \frac{d}{dt}\mathcal{F}(A_0,t) = -\nabla \operatorname{E}(\mathcal{F}(A_0,t))\)

**Theorem** (with Needham)

For any \(A_0 \in \mathbb{C}^{d \times d}\), the matrix \(A_\infty := \lim_{t \to \infty} \mathcal{F}(A_0,t)\) exists, is normal, has the same eigenvalues as \(A_0\), and is real if \(A_0\) is.

There is an equivalent result in which \(A_0\) is required to be non-nilpotent and Frobenius norm is preserved rather than spectrum.

Moreover, there exist \(c, \epsilon > 0\) so that, if \(\operatorname{E}(A_0)< \epsilon\), then \(\|A_0 - A_\infty\|^2 \leq c \sqrt{\operatorname{E}(A_0)}\).

\(\mathbb{C}^{d \times d}\) is symplectic, with symplectic form \(\omega_A(X,Y) = -\mathrm{Im}\langle X,Y \rangle = -\mathrm{Im}\mathrm{Tr}(Y^\ast X)\).

A *symplectic manifold* is a smooth manifold \(M\) together with a closed, non-degenerate 2-form \(\omega \in \Omega^2(M)\).

**Example:** \((\mathbb{R}^2,dx \wedge dy) = (\mathbb{C},\frac{i}{2}dz \wedge d\bar{z})\)

dx \wedge dy \left( \textcolor{12a4b6}{a \frac{\partial}{\partial x} + b \frac{\partial}{\partial y}}, \textcolor{d9782d}{c \frac{\partial }{\partial x} + d \frac{\partial}{\partial y}} \right) = ad - bc

(a,b) = a \vec{e}_1 + b \vec{e}_2 = a \frac{\partial}{\partial x} + b \frac{\partial}{\partial y}

(c,d) = c \vec{e}_1 + d \vec{e}_2 = c \frac{\partial}{\partial x} + d \frac{\partial}{\partial y}

\(\mathbb{C}^{d \times d}\) is symplectic, with symplectic form \(\omega_A(X,Y) = -\mathrm{Im}\langle X,Y \rangle = -\mathrm{Im}\mathrm{Tr}(Y^\ast X)\).

Consider the conjugation action of \(\operatorname{SU}(d)\) on \(\mathbb{C}^{d \times d}\): \(U \cdot A = U A U^\ast\).

This action is *Hamiltonian* with associated momentum map \(\mu: \mathbb{C}^{d \times d} \to \mathscr{H}_0(d)\) given by

\(\mu(A) := [A,A^\ast]\).

So \(\operatorname{E}(A) = \|\mu(A)\|^2\).

Frances Kirwan

Gert-Martin Greuel [CC BY-SA 2.0 DE], from Oberwolfach Photo Collection

Image by rawpixel.com on Freepik

This kind of function is really nice!

**Theorem** (with Needham)

The space of normal matrices with Frobenius norm 1 is **connected**.

The GIT quotient consists of group orbits which can be distinguished by \(G\)-invariant (homogeneous) polynomials.

\(\mathbb{C}^* \curvearrowright \mathbb{CP}^2\)

\(t \cdot [z_0:z_1:z_2] = [z_0: tz_1:\frac{1}{t}z_2]\)

Roughly: identify orbits whose closures intersect, throw away orbits on which all \(G\)-invariant polynomials vanish.

\( \mathbb{CP}^2/\!/\,\mathbb{C}^* \cong\mathbb{CP}^1\)

Let \(T \simeq \operatorname{U}(1)^{d-1}\) be the diagonal subgroup of \(\operatorname{SU}(d)\). The conjugation action of \(T\) on \(\mathbb{C}^{d \times d}\) is also Hamiltonian, with momentum map

\(A \mapsto \mathrm{diag}([A,A^\ast])\).

\([A,A^\ast]_{ii} = \|A_i\|^2 - \|A^i\|^2\), where \(A_i\) is the \(i\)th row of \(A\) and \(A^i\) is the \(i\)th column.

If \(A = \left(a_{ij}\right)_{i,j} \in \mathbb{R}^{d \times d}\) such that \(\mathrm{diag}([A,A^\ast]) = 0\), then \(\widehat{A} = \left(a_{ij}^2\right)_{i,j}\) is the adjacency matrix of a *balanced* multigraph.

Define the *unbalanced energy* \(\operatorname{B}(A) := \|\mathrm{diag}([A,A^\ast])\|^2 = \sum \left(\|A_i\|^2 - \|A^i\|^2\right)^2\).

Let \(\mathscr{F}(A_0,0) = A_0, \frac{d}{dt}\mathscr{F}(A_0,t) = - \nabla \operatorname{B}(\mathscr{F}(A_0,t))\) be negative gradient flow of \(\operatorname{B}\).

**Theorem** (with Needham)

For any \(A_0 \in \mathbb{C}^{d \times d}\), the matrix \(A_\infty := \lim_{t \to \infty} \mathscr{F}(A_0,t)\) exists, is balanced, has the same eigenvalues and principal minors as \(A_0\), and has zero entries whenever \(A_0\) does.

If \(A_0\) is real, so is \(A_\infty\), and if \(A_0\) has all non-negative entries, then so does \(A_\infty\).

This is “local”: \(a_{ij}\) is updated by a multiple of \((\|A_j\|^2-\|A^j\|^2)-(\|A_i\|^2-\|A^i\|^2)\).

**Theorem** (with Needham)

For any \(A_0 \in \mathbb{C}^{d \times d}\), the matrix \(A_\infty := \lim_{t \to \infty} \mathscr{F}(A_0,t)\) exists, is balanced, has the same eigenvalues and principal minors as \(A_0\), and has zero entries whenever \(A_0\) does.

If \(A_0\) is real, so is \(A_\infty\), and if \(A_0\) has all non-negative entries, then so does \(A_\infty\).

**Theorem** (with Needham)

For any \(A_0 \in \mathbb{C}^{d \times d}\), the matrix \(A_\infty := \lim_{t \to \infty} \mathscr{F}(A_0,t)\) exists, is balanced, has the same eigenvalues and principal minors as \(A_0\), and has zero entries whenever \(A_0\) does.

If \(A_0\) is real, so is \(A_\infty\), and if \(A_0\) has all non-negative entries, then so does \(A_\infty\).

**Theorem** (with Needham)

\(\|A\|^2=1\)

\(\|A\|^2=0.569\)

**Theorem** (with Needham)

**Theorem** (with Needham)

By doing gradient flow \(\overline{\mathscr{F}}\) on the unit sphere, we can preserve weights:

**Theorem** (with Needham)

For any non-nilpotent \(A_0 \in \mathbb{C}^{d \times d}\) with \(\|A\|^2=1\), the matrix \(A_\infty := \lim_{t \to \infty} \overline{\mathscr{F}}(A_0,t)\) exists, is balanced, has Frobenius norm 1, and has zero entries whenever \(A_0\) does.

By doing gradient flow \(\overline{\mathscr{F}}\) on the unit sphere, we can preserve weights:

**Theorem** (with Needham)

For any non-nilpotent \(A_0 \in \mathbb{C}^{d \times d}\) with \(\|A\|^2=1\), the matrix \(A_\infty := \lim_{t \to \infty} \overline{\mathscr{F}}(A_0,t)\) exists, is balanced, has Frobenius norm 1, and has zero entries whenever \(A_0\) does.

By doing gradient flow \(\overline{\mathscr{F}}\) on the unit sphere, we can preserve weights:

**Theorem** (with Needham)

For any non-nilpotent \(A_0 \in \mathbb{C}^{d \times d}\) with \(\|A\|^2=1\), the matrix \(A_\infty := \lim_{t \to \infty} \overline{\mathscr{F}}(A_0,t)\) exists, is balanced, has Frobenius norm 1, and has zero entries whenever \(A_0\) does.

By doing gradient flow \(\overline{\mathscr{F}}\) on the unit sphere, we can preserve weights:

**Theorem** (with Needham)

Fusion frame homotopy and tightening fusion frames by gradient descent

Tom Needham and Clayton Shonkwiler

*Journal of Fourier Analysis and Applications* **29** (2023), no. 4, 51

Three proofs of the Benedetto–Fickus theorem

Dustin Mixon, Tom Needham, Clayton Shonkwiler, and Soledad Villar

*Sampling, Approximation, and Signal Analysis (Harmonic Analysis in the Spirit of J. Rowland Higgins)*, Stephen D. Casey, M. Maurice Dodson, Paulo J. S. G. Ferreira and Ahmed Zayed, eds., Birkhäuser, Cham, 2023, 371–391

By Clayton Shonkwiler

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