Learning HTML

Hypertext Markup Language

XHTML syntax

Version 5.0

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
    <head>
        <title></title>
    </head>
    <body>
    </body>
</html>

Tree structure 

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
    <head>
        <title></title>
    </head>
    <body>
    </body>
</html>
  • One "root": html
  • Two big "branches": head and body

HTML syntax

Elements

Image credit: https://web4college.com

Nesting

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
    <head>
        <title></title>
    </head>
    <body>
      <h1>Top level heading</h1>
      <p>Text content understood as a <q>paragraph</q></p>
      <ul>
        <li>bulleted list item</li>
        <li>another bulleted list item</li>
      </ul>
      <p>Another block paragraph with 
         <strong>this phrase</strong> emphasized.
      </p>
    </body>
</html>

An Ordered Hierarchy  

NOTICE: The hierarchy includes elements AND text.

HTML syntax

One element = start tag + contents + end-tag

Image credit: https://web4college.com

Elements and attributes

Elements + attributes

What are HTML attributes for?

  • Provide extra information about an element
  • Provide pointers to other resources 

Self-closing elements

Image Credit: Slightly adapted from https://studio.code.org

<img src="bird.jpg" alt="photo of bird"/>

XHTML Syntax: Note the forward slash at the end of the element!

What is hypertext, anyway?

  • A data structure: Information is accessed directly from display
     
  • Hypertexts permit us to interact with information by following links (aka hyperlinks) to other documents

HTML linkages: head (metadata)

  • <link/> element: for linking a CSS file
  • <script> element can link a JS file

Inside the <head>.....</head>

<head>
  <title>My Portfolio Site</title>
  <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="style.css"/>
</head>

HTML linkages: body (display data)

  • <a> element: @href handles link
    • to another file in your web directory (relative file association),
    • to another file published on the worldwide web (absolute file association)
    • holds linked text inside the element

Inside the <body>.....</body>

HTML linkages: body (display data)

  • <img> element: @src holds image file location
    • to another file in your web directory (relative file association),
    • to another file published on the worldwide web (absolute file association)
    • is typically an empty (self-closing) element
    • @alt attribute provides text to show, in case the image does not load on your page

Inside the <body>.....</body>

Structuring HTML: 

HTML Block elements

  • Organize your document as data
    • Sections <nav>, <section>, and <div>
    • Headings: <h1> through <h5>
    • Paragraphs: <p>
    • Lists:
      • <ul> and <li>
      •  <ol> and <li> 
    • Tables: <table>
    • Figures with images and captions: <figure>
 <nav>  
        <ul class="menuB"><li><a href="index.html">Home</a></li> 
          <li><a href="resume.html">Resume</a></li> 
          <li><a href="gallery.html">Gallery</a></li>
          <li><a href="essays.html">DIGIT 100 Essays</a></li>
      </ul>
    </nav>
<figure class="photoGallery">
    <img class="photo" src="images/littleNewt.jpg" alt="pet firebelly newt"/>
    <figcaption>Photo of my pet firebelly newt.</figcaption>
</figure>

<figure> element with  contents displayed

HTML Inline elements: In the “text flow”

  • emphasis
  • links
  • key terms
 <p>Here is a sample link to another website outside of this site. 
 This link holds an <dfn>absolute URL</dfn>: 
   <a href="https://behrend.psu.edu/">Penn State Erie, The Behrend College</a>.
</p>

More Sample Code!

learningHTML

By Elisa Beshero-Bondar

learningHTML

Slides to help with learning HTML

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