Accelerated cross-section predictions with XSEC
Jeriek Van den Abeele
Tools 2020
@JeriekVda
Based on arXiv:2006.16273 with A. Buckley, A. Kvellestad, A. Raklev, P. Scott, J. V. Sparre, and I. A. Vazquez-Holm
IP2I, Lyon
Global fits address the need for a consistent comparison of BSM theories to all relevant experimental data
Challenge:
Scanning increasingly high-dimensional parameter spaces with varying phenomenology
Exploration of a combined likelihood function:
\(\mathcal{L} = \mathcal{L}_\mathsf{collider} \times \mathcal{L}_\mathsf{Higgs} \times \mathcal{L}_\mathsf{DM} \times \mathcal{L}_\mathsf{EWPO} \times \mathcal{L}_\mathsf{flavour} \times \ldots\)
See GAMBIT talk Friday!
Global fits address the need for a consistent comparison of BSM theories to all relevant experimental data
Challenge:
Scanning increasingly high-dimensional parameter spaces with varying phenomenology
Exploration of a combined likelihood function:
\(\mathcal{L} = \mathcal{L}_\mathsf{collider} \times \mathcal{L}_\mathsf{Higgs} \times \mathcal{L}_\mathsf{DM} \times \mathcal{L}_\mathsf{EWPO} \times \mathcal{L}_\mathsf{flavour} \times \ldots\)
Global fits need quick, but sufficiently accurate theory predictions
BSM scans today easily require \(\sim 10^7\) samples or more
Higher-order BSM production cross-sections and theoretical uncertainties make a significant difference!
[GAMBIT, 1705.07919]
CMSSM
[hep-ph/9610490]
Existing higher-order evaluation tools are insufficient for large MSSM scans
- Prospino/MadGraph: full calculation, minutes/hours per point
- N(N)LL-fast: fast grid interpolation, but only degenerate squark masses
$$ pp\to\tilde g \tilde g,\ \tilde g \tilde q_i,\ \tilde q_i \tilde q_j, $$
$$\tilde q_i \tilde q_j^{*},\ \tilde b_i \tilde b_i^{*},\ \tilde t_i \tilde t_i^{*}$$
at \(\mathsf{\sqrt{s}=13} \) TeV
xsec 1.0 performs smart regression for strong SUSY processes at the LHC
- New Python tool for NLO cross-section predictions within seconds
A. Buckley, A. Kvellestad, A. Raklev, P. Scott, J. V. Sparre, JVDA, I. A. Vazquez-Holm
- Pointwise estimates of PDF, \(\alpha_s\) and scale uncertainties, in addition to the subdominant regression uncertainty
- Future expansions: other processes, more CoM energies, higher-order corrections, ...
$$$
A quick sketch
Interpolation ...
Interpolation ... doesn't give prediction uncertainty!
Correlation length-scale
Correlation length-scale
Correlation length-scale
Correlation length-scale
Correlation length-scale
Correlation length-scale
Correlation length-scale
Correlation length-scale
Correlation length-scale
Estimate from data!
Correlation length-scale
Estimate from data!
Correlation length-scale
Gaussian process prediction with uncertainty
Estimate from data!
prior distribution over all functions
with the estimated smoothness
The Bayesian Way: quantify beliefs with probability
prior distribution over all functions
with the estimated smoothness
posterior distribution over functions
with updated \(m(\vec x)\)
data
The Bayesian Way: quantify beliefs with probability
Let's make some draws from this prior distribution
Let's make some draws from this prior distribution
Let's make some draws from this prior distribution
Let's make some draws from this prior distribution
Let's make some draws from this prior distribution
Let's make some draws from this prior distribution
Let's make some draws from this prior distribution
Let's make some draws from this prior distribution
At each input point, we obtain a distribution of possible function values (prior to looking at data)
At each input point, we obtain a distribution of possible function values (prior to looking at data)
At each input point, we obtain a distribution of possible function values (prior to looking at data)
A Gaussian process sets up an infinite number of correlated Gaussians, one at each parameter point
We obtain a posterior by conditioning on known data
target function
We obtain a posterior by conditioning on known data
target function
We obtain a posterior by conditioning on known data
We obtain a posterior by conditioning on known data
Make posterior predictions at new points by computing correlations to known points
Make posterior predictions at new points by computing correlations to known points
Posterior predictive distributions are Gaussian too
Squared Exponential kernel
Matérn-3/2 kernel
Different kernels lead to different function spaces to marginalise over
My kingdom for a good kernel ...
GPs allow us to use probabilistic inference to learn a function from data, in an interpretable, analytical, yet non-parametric Bayesian framework.
A GP model is fully specified once the mean function, the kernel and its hyperparameters are chosen.
The probabilistic interpretation only holds under the assumption that the chosen kernel accurately describes the true correlation structure.
The choice of kernel allows for great flexibility. But once chosen, it fixes the type of functions likely under the GP prior and determines the kind of structure captured by the model, e.g., periodicity and differentiability.
My kingdom for a good kernel ...
The choice of kernel allows for great flexibility. But once chosen, it fixes the type of functions likely under the GP prior and determines the kind of structure captured by the model, e.g., periodicity and differentiability.
My kingdom for a good kernel ...
The choice of kernel allows for great flexibility. But once chosen, it fixes the type of functions likely under the GP prior and determines the kind of structure captured by the model, e.g., periodicity and differentiability.
My kingdom for a good kernel ...
For our multi-dimensional case of cross-section regression, we get good results by multiplying Matérn (\(\nu = 3/2\)) kernels over the different mass dimensions:
The different lengthscale parameters \(l_d\) lead to automatic relevance determination for each feature: short-range correlations for important features over which the target function varies strongly.
This is an anisotropic, stationary kernel. It allows for functions that are less smooth than with the standard squared-exponential kernel.
My kingdom for a good kernel ...
... with good hyperparameters
Short lengthscale, small noise
Long lengthscale, large noise
Underfitting, almost linear
Overfitting of fluctuations,
can lead to large uncertainties!
Typically, kernel hyperparameters are estimated by maximising the (log) marginal likelihood \(p( \vec y\ |\ \vec X, \vec \theta) \), aka the empirical Bayes method.
Alternative: MCMC integration over a range of \(\vec \theta\).
Gradient-based optimisation can get stuck in local optima and plateaus. Multiple initialisations can help, or global optimisation methods like differential evolution.
Global optimum: somewhere in between
... with good hyperparameters
Typically, kernel hyperparameters are estimated by maximising the (log) marginal likelihood \(p( \vec y\ |\ \vec X, \vec \theta) \), aka the empirical Bayes method.
Alternative: MCMC integration over a range of \(\vec \theta\).
Gradient-based optimisation can get stuck in local optima and plateaus. Multiple initialisations can help, or global optimisation methods like differential evolution.
The standard approach systematically underestimates prediction errors.
After accounting for the additional uncertainty from learning the hyper-parameters, the prediction error increases when far from training points.
[Wågberg+, 1606.03865]
... with good hyperparameters
Other tricks to improve the numerical stability of training:
- Normalising features and target values
- Factoring out known behaviour from the target values
- Training on log-transformed targets, for extreme values and/or a large range, or to ensure positive predictions
... with good hyperparameters
Workflow
Generating data
Random sampling
SUSY spectrum
Cross-sections
Optimise kernel hyperparameters
Training GPs
GP predictions
Input parameters
Linear algebra
Cross-section
estimates
Compute covariances between training points
Workflow
Generating data
Random sampling
SUSY spectrum
Cross-sections
Optimise kernel hyperparameters
Training GPs
GP predictions
Input parameters
Linear algebra
Cross-section
estimates
XSEC
Compute covariances between training points
Training scales as \(\mathcal{O}(n^3)\), prediction as \(\mathcal{O}(n^2)\)
A balancing act
Random sampling with different priors, directly in mass space
Evaluation speed
Sample coverage
Need to cover a large parameter space
Distributed Gaussian processes
[Liu+, 1806.00720]
Distributed Gaussian Processes
Divide-and-conquer approach for dealing with large datasets
- Make local predictions with smaller data subsets
- Compute a weighted average of these predictions
The exact weighting procedure is important, to ensure
- Smooth final predictions
- Valid regression uncertainties
"Generalized Robust Bayesian Committee Machine"
Sometimes, a curious problem arises: negative predictive variances!
It is due to numerical errors when computing the inverse of the covariance matrix \(K\). When \(K\) contains many training points, there is a good chance that some of them are similar:
GP regularisation
Nearly equal columns make \(K\) ill-conditioned. One or more eigenvalues \(\lambda_i\) are close to zero and \(K\) can no longer be inverted reliably. The number of significant digits lost is roughly the \(\log_{10}\) of the condition number
This becomes problematic when \(\kappa \gtrsim 10^8 \). In the worst-case scenario,
signal-to-noise ratio
number of points
GP regularisation
GP regularisation
- Add a white-noise component to the kernel
- Can compute minimal value that reduces \(\kappa\) sufficiently
- Can model discrepancy between GP model and latent function, e.g., regarding assumptions of stationarity and differentiability
[Mohammadi+, 1602.00853]
- Avoid a large S/N ratio by adding a likelihood penalty term guiding the hyperparameter optimisation
- Nearly noiseless data is problematic ... Artificially increasing the noise level may be necessary, degrading the model a bit
Validation results
Gluino-gluino
Gluino-squark
Squark-squark
Squark-antisquark
Getting started with XSEC
pip install xsec
xsec-download-gprocs --process_type gg
# Set directory and cache choices
xsec.init(data_dir="gprocs")
# Set center-of-mass energy (in GeV)
xsec.set_energy(13000)
# Load GP models for the specified process(es)
processes = [(1000021, 1000021)]
xsec.load_processes(processes)
# Enter dictionary with parameter values
xsec.set_parameters(
{
"m1000021": 1000,
"m1000001": 500,
"m1000002": 500,
"m1000003": 500,
"m1000004": 500,
"m1000005": 500,
"m1000006": 500,
"m2000001": 500,
"m2000002": 500,
"m2000003": 500,
"m2000004": 500,
"m2000005": 500,
"m2000006": 500,
"sbotmix11": 0,
"stopmix11": 0,
"mean": 500,
}
)
# Evaluate the cross-section with the given input parameters
xsec.eval_xsection()
# Finalise the evaluation procedure
xsec.finalise()
Fast estimate of SUSY (strong) production cross- sections at NLO, and uncertainties from
- regression itself
- renormalisation scale
- PDF variation
- \(\alpha_s\) variation
Goal
$$ pp\to\tilde g \tilde g,\ \tilde g \tilde q_i,\ \tilde q_i \tilde q_j, $$
$$\tilde q_i \tilde q_j^{*},\ \tilde b_i \tilde b_i^{*},\ \tilde t_i \tilde t_i^{*}$$
Interface
Method
Pre-trained, distributed Gaussian processes
Python tool with command-line interface
Processes
at \(\mathsf{\sqrt{s}=13}\) TeV
Tutorial on Friday!
Thank you!
Backup slides
Some linear algebra
Regression problem, with 'measurement' noise:
\(y=f(\vec x) + \varepsilon, \ \varepsilon\sim \mathcal{N}(0,\sigma_n^2) \quad \rightarrow \quad \) infer \(f\), given data \(\mathcal{D} = \{\vec X, \vec y\}\)
Assume covariance structure expressed by a kernel function, like
Consider the data as a sample from a multivariate Gaussian distribution
\([\vec x_1, \vec x_2, \ldots]\)
\([y_1, y_2, \ldots]\)
signal kernel
white-noise kernel
Some linear algebra
Regression problem, with 'measurement' noise:
\(y=f(\vec x) + \varepsilon, \ \varepsilon\sim \mathcal{N}(0,\sigma_n^2) \quad \rightarrow \quad \) infer \(f\), given data \(\mathcal{D} = \{\vec X, \vec y\}\)
Training: optimise kernel hyperparameters by maximising the marginal likelihood
Posterior predictive distribution at a new point \(\vec x_*\) :
with
Implicit integration over points not in \(\vec X\)
[
Gaussian Processes 101 (non-parametric regression)
prior over functions
The covariance matrix controls smoothness.
Assume it is given by a kernel function, like
posterior over functions
Bayesian approach to estimate \( y_* = f(x_*) \) :
Consider the data as a sample from a multivariate Gaussian distribution.
data
mean
covariance
Scale-dependence of LO/NLO
[Beenakker+, hep-ph/9610490]
Accelerating cross-section predictions with XSEC
By jeriek
Accelerating cross-section predictions with XSEC
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