# part 1: What have we done with the OECD DATA: Estimating profit shifting

Javier Garcia-Bernardo (TJN/UvA)

Petr Janský (Charles University)

### Method 1: Hines-Rice alternatives

• Data:
•  Sub-groups with positive profits, for 13 reporting countries with enough data quality
• Method:
• Calculate profit according to Hines-Rice
• Compare with hypothetical tax rate of 25%
• Redistribute the remaining profits based on:
• 50% unrelated party revenue , 25% employees, 25% wages
• Revenues/Employees/Wages estimated based on model
• Scale up using the share of GDP (~50% of total)

### Method 2: Misalignment

• Data:
•  All sub-groups, all countries
• Method (1000 times):
• Estimate revenues and employees for:
• Domestic operations (simple linear model) - R-square ~95%
• Each pair of countries  (complicated model based on Gradient Boosting) - R-square ~50% (out-of-sample prediction)
• --> Those numbers used to scale up the revenues/employees/profits in a country
• --> The models are fitted using different bootstrap samples
• The median estimation is that ~50% of the revenue/employees are missing, but more information is missing for small countries, because they often get groupped together (this is key!)
• Calculate profit misalignment, using the same equation (50% sales, 25% emp, 25% wages)

### Results

High level:

- Extreme non-linearity of the semi-elasticity of tax on profits

- Level of profit shifting: Around \$1 trillion

- Level of tax revenue loss: Around \$250 billion

- Large countries lose 15-75% of their profits

# PARt 2: discussion about methodology/results

What are the potential error margins of the imputation of missing data?

Especially for developing countries.

```Janský,  Garcia-Bernardo & Tørsløv "Multinational Corporations and Tax Havens: Evidence from Country-by-Country Reporting"(ITAX, 2020)
```

Potential impact: 5-12 billion (2-5% of total)

- Why only 10-30% reallocation (instead of 100%)

### Pillar 2

• Direct effect: 23-43 billion.
• Why redistributed to shareholders instead to market jurisdictions?
• Indirect effect through reduced profit shifted: 19-28 billion.
• Based on assumption of linear semi-elasticity?
• This is expected to increase profits in investment hubs and foster a race to the minimum tax. How to fix this?

By Javier GB

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